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How to perform tyammum & what type of soil to use for it?


Allah says in the quran: O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.QURAN [5:6]

Thus if a believer does not find the water then he can do a tyammum. First, one must have the intention. Then, he mentions Allah's name, strikes the soil with his hands, and wipes his face and his hands up to the wrist.

Narrated 'Abdur Rahman bin Abza: A man came to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab and said, "I became Junub but no water was available." 'Ammar bin Yasir said to 'Umar, "Do you remember that you and I (became Junub while both of us) were together on a journey and you didn't pray but I rolled myself on the ground and prayed? I informed the Prophet about it and he said, 'It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.' The Prophet then stroked lightly the earth with his hands and then blew off the dust and passed his hands over his face and hands." SAHIH AL-BUKHARI[Book 7 :: Volume 1 :: Hadith 334]

This hadith shows that one strike of the earth is sufficient, and one only wipes the arms to the wrists. It is from the Sunnah that one who makes tyammum with dirt should blow into his hands first and not make his face dusty or dirty.

The soil used for tyammum: It must be pure soil: this can be sand, stone, gypsum, and so on. And Allah alone knows the best.